We believe that general and complete disarmament is a global responsibility. We must continue practical, systematic and progressive efforts to advance nuclear disarmament globally and reduce nuclear weapons towards a world free of nuclear weapons. All States should increase transparency and security of their fissile material holdings. We must seek the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty; we also urge the soonest commencement of negotiations without preconditions on a treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.
The spectre of nuclear terrorism has placed a new premium on the need to strengthen the global nuclear non-proliferation regime. Finding weapons of mass destruction in the hands of terrorists is today a real and frightening prospect. Terrorists would not hesitate to threaten to use them or to use them. And we know they are trying to acquire them.
Current threats require the strengthening of effective measures to safeguard nuclear materials, and to control access to them. All member states of the UN have a solemn obligation to put in place adequate national legislation and enforcement in both areas. We emphasize the obligation of all states to implement Security Council resolution 1540. We also welcome the amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, seek its early ratification and encourage States not party to the Convention to accede promptly and ratify its amendment. We recognize that the only full guarantee against the use of nuclear weapons would be complete security of nuclear materials and a world free of all nuclear weapons.
We reaffirm the inalienable right of all States Parties to the NPT to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination but also in conformity with their non-proliferation obligations and safeguards obligations under the Treaty, and provided that peaceful nuclear activities are not diverted for weapons purposes. We recognize the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as the competent authority responsible to verify and assure compliance with safeguards agreements which States Parties undertake in fulfillment of their obligations under the Treaty. We must continue to strengthen verification to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of IAEA safeguards. This requires concrete commitments from States. We call on all States that have not yet done so to conclude and implement relevant Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols without delay; conclusion of both is essential for effective verification. These safeguards measures should facilitate robust peaceful nuclear cooperation. However, States may choose to fully enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy without developing a domestic fuel cycle capability. We should establish mechanisms to ensure guaranteed access to the market for nuclear fuel and related services for States in compliance with their non-proliferation obligations and safeguards obligations under the NPT, as determined by the IAEA. We welcome the report of the IAEA Director General's Expert Group on Multilateral Approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, and resolve to support all efforts to identify and develop a consensus solution that provides assurances of both supply of services and non-proliferation.